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American Scientists (American Biographies) by Charles W. Carey Jr.

By Charles W. Carey Jr.

Ahead of 1901, whilst the 1st Nobel Prize used to be presented, many of the state of the art medical study and idea was once being performed in Europe, the place a number of the world-class chemists, physicists, and clinical researchers resided. by way of 2004, americans had received greater than two hundred Nobel Prizes within the sciences - greater than the other unmarried country. in the course of that century American scientists, despite their self-discipline, led the best way in constructing the theories and experiments that experience propelled humankind's wisdom of technology ahead. "American Scientists" offers 250-300 entries at the scientists who've enormously impacted society and the clinical neighborhood. every one authoritative access covers the scientist's history details, together with information about the individual's expert profession and accomplishments in the clinical global. including to this obtainable reference are extra analyzing lists particular to every access, seventy three pictures, cross-references, a bibliography, a basic index, and topic indexes - one by means of self-discipline and one through yr of beginning.

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URL: http://nobelprize. org/medicine/laureates/1999. Downloaded on July 14, 2004. Bloch, Felix (1905–1983) physicist Felix Bloch was a theoretical physicist whose work had tremendous practical applications. He codeveloped nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which won him a share of the 1952 Nobel Prize in physics and led eventually to the development of the CAT scan. By explaining electrical conductivity in terms of electron flow, he helped to lay the theoretical groundwork for the development of solid-state electronics.

The second takes place in massive stars, and it produces energy via the carbon-nitrogen cycle. In a series of six steps, one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms are fused into one nitrogen atom, which then fuses with a hydrogen atom to create one helium atom and one carbon atom; in essence, the carbon atom acts like a catalyst, thus continuing the reaction. Amazingly, given the lack of experimental data and the crude nature of technology at the time, Bethe’s theory about energy generation in stars continued to be the standard theory for the next 30 years.

Blalock was the first to demonstrate that surgical shock usually results from the massive loss of blood, which in turn lowers blood pressure to the point that the circulatory system cannot do its job. He correctly reasoned that the proper treatment for shock was to begin replacing the lost blood with either plasma or whole blood as soon as shock set in. By the start of World War II, it had become a common practice to have plenty of blood on hand during surgery in case the patient went into shock, thus saving the patient’s life in many cases.

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