By manjunath and fantin marius
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Extra resources for Aero Acoustics of Fixed Wing and Rotary Wing Aircraft
However, recent studies have shown that, in the Paris Region, cracking in high-strength aerospace quality steels and Mil Annealed Ti–6AL–4V titanium is essentially R ratio independent. As a result, the crack closure and Willenborg algorithm’s available within commercial crack growth codes are inappropriate for predicting/assessing cracking under operational loading in these materials. To help overcome this shortcoming, this chapter presents an alternative engineering approach that can be used to predict the growth of small near-micron-size defects under representative operational load spectra and reveal how it is linked to a prior law developed by the Boeing Commercial Aircraft Company.
B. Farahmand, Fatigue & Fracture Mechanics of High Risk Parts, Chapman & Hall, 1997, Chapter 5 2. B. Farahmand, Fracture Mechanics of Metals, Composites, Welds, and Bolted Joints, Kluwer Academic Publisher, November 2000, Chapter 6 3. B. Farahmand, “Predicting Fracture and Fatigue Crack Growth Properties Using Tensile Properties, Engineering,” J. 75, 2007, pp. 2144–2155 4. B. Farahmand, De Xie, F. Abdi, “Estimation of Fatigue and Fracture Allowables for Metallic Materials Under Cyclic Loading,” AIAA-2007 5.
The question thus arises: How can a valid virtual assessment of the performance of an aircraft/rail component under representative operational loading be performed if the fundamental concepts inherent in the existing crack growth codes, viz: AFGROW, FASTRAN, and NASGROW, do not apply to the materials from which the component fabricated, that is, for components made out of 4340 and D6ac steel, QIN (HY80) steel, rail steels, Mil Annealed Ti–6AL–4V, STOA Ti– 6AL–4V, etc.? This chapter presents one possible approach which is based on the equivalent block formulation presented in [8, 11, 18] and reveals how it is linked to spectra where the constant amplitude Region II growth mechanism tends to be suppressed and a single value of C∗ can be used to predict the crack length versus cycles history.