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Extra resources for Adiabatic Expansion in Case of Vanishing Increments II
Providing a suﬃcient amount of energy above a certain threshold, we arrive to the atom’s excited states where the electron is passed into higher orbits. To simplify, one always represents the orbits of electrons by circling around the nucleus. However, this is not the reality, because for a quantum theory, the electron has neither a well-deﬁned position nor speed on a circle but must be on an spherical orbital and thus becomes diﬃcult to locate. ♥ Bosons and Fermions: Spin and Statistics • Compton eﬀect Inspired by the result of Bohr, Einstein (Fig.
B. L. Berthollet. C. A. W. Morley. a vacuum regardless of the oscillating charge. By an experimental measure Maxwell found that the speed of electromagnetic waves is equal to that of light. This led him to the conclusion that light moves in space as an electromagnetic wave. However, he thinks that this spread requires the support of waves: the ether which is nothing else than the ﬁfth element of Aristotle. Thus, Albert Abraham Michelson (1852–1931) in 1881, Nobel Prize of 1907, and later Edward Williams Morley (1838–1923) (Fig.
29: (a) O. Klein, (b) H. Weyl, (c) N. Abel, (d) E. Noether. ♦ Klein–Gordon Equation for Scalar Field In 1926, the Schr¨ odinger equation of quantum mechanics has been generalized by Oskar Klein (1894–1977) and Walter Gordon (1893–1939) (Fig. 29) and also by Vladimir Fock (Fig. 21) in the relativistic case. A free (without external interaction) scalar particle of spin 0 is described by the Klein–Gordon equation: (p2 − m2 )φ = 0, in the system of natural units = c = 1, where φ(x, t) is the scalar ﬁeld.