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Active, Passive & Impersonal Constructions of Classical by NILOTPALA GANDHI

By NILOTPALA GANDHI

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I formance of an action s a semantic function too. g. ~qqft: ~ % 'ldfu . g . ~~ ~... I ... ",- [sankara brought down the Ganges from the heaven] An action predication has following participant roles. ·L. . --~- -- - -~- mt ~I (Devadatta studies· Vedas] The Agent, ~qC;ft: ~ ~ I THE MEANING OF THE PASSIVE . - ~qC;ft: The Object (Goal) . (Neutral) . :> OF. THE PASSIVE [Devadatta cooks rice] [Devadatta worships Krishna] 45 5) (6) The Agent, The Object, ~~ ~ ~ ~ I (affected) Instrment [Devadatta cooks rice with fire] The Particip'Int rol The Positioner (2) The Positioner, The Agent, The Object, - ~q,rcl: 4'i1~'\114 ~ ~ I Recipient [Devadatta gives rice to Yagnadatta] (7) .

I¥. - ;~. ~ "," ............ ~~~~~~~~~~~-------------- The Participant roles (1) )ks rice with fire] Illustration The Positioner (Devadatta stands] S (2) rice to Yagnadatta] Brf·~~ (s rice in the The Positioner, ~ ~ 34Ri«:::, I The Location [Devadatta has sat in the chair] The Process : The uncontrolled Dynamic situation is the process. The objects that participate in a process cannot control it. Sanskrit grammarians do not differentiate the process from the action. They consider the process in the 'ruits from the forest] category of the action but from the speaker's intuitions (or rather from the literature) it seems that the Sanskrit speakers viewed the process different from the action.

L'+,. ~"<";l,'" ) in the sentences ~ ~ I (arrow 'len they all come Rama kills RavaQa I upon as different the role they play According to Sanskrit grammatical tradition, there are Six Karakas. 4;S4) thai which is independent amongst· the Karakas is

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