By Caroline Moorehead
They have been academics, scholars, chemists, writers, and housewives; a singer on the Paris Opera, a midwife, a dental health care provider. They disbursed anti-Nazi leaflets, published subversive newspapers, concealed resisters, secreted Jews to defense, transported guns, and conveyed clandestine messages. The youngest used to be a schoolgirl of fifteen who scrawled "V" for victory at the partitions of her lycÉe; the eldest, a farmer's spouse in her sixties who harbored escaped Allied airmen. Strangers to one another, hailing from villages and towns from throughout France, those courageous girls have been united in hatred and defiance in their Nazi occupiers.
finally, the Gestapo hunted down 230 of those girls and imprisoned them in a citadel open air Paris. Separated from domestic and family, those disparate participants grew to become to each other, their universal event conquering divisions of age, schooling, career, and sophistication, as they discovered solace and power of their deep affection and camaraderie.
In January 1943, they have been despatched to their ultimate vacation spot: Auschwitz. simply forty-nine may go back to France.
A teach in Winter attracts on interviews with those ladies and their households; German, French, and varnish data; and files held by means of international battle II resistance organisations to discover a gloomy bankruptcy of background that provides an inspiring portrait of normal humans, of bravery and survival—and of the awesome, enduring energy of lady friendship.
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Additional info for A Train in Winter: An Extraordinary Story of Women, Friendship, and Resistance in Occupied France
The Germans had been pushed 40–50 miles back from the positions they had held on the outskirts of Moscow but here, as elsewhere on the Eastern Front, they retained control of almost all the territory they had conquered in 1941. The Soviets had won a crucial tactical battle in front of Moscow but their dreams of a successful strategic counter-offensive did not materialise at this time. Still, the immediate threat to Moscow had been lifted and that fact alone signalled the end of the German ambition to conquer Russia in the course of a single, lightning campaign.
Qxd 16/9/02 16:32 Page 24 VICTORY AT STALINGRAD materials and industrial products for shipment back to Germany. In the longer term there would be large-scale colonisation of Russia by German settlers in search of Lebensraum (‘living space’), which would necessitate the expulsion of millions of native peoples to Siberia or elsewhere. Conquered Russia would also be used as a dumping ground for Jews and other ‘inferior races’ of which the Germans wanted to rid Europe. At this time the Nazis’ ‘final solution’ of the Jewish question in Europe was seen by them in terms of the mass expulsion of the Jews to the east, not their mass murder – not yet anyway.
89) The projected scenario was nightmarish enough. What actually happened was infinitely worse. The implementation of the planned war of destruction soon escalated into the mass murder of Soviet soldiers and citizens by the SS and the Wehrmacht. It was this escalation of the war that made the struggle on the Eastern Front so barbarous, not the extent or brutality of the combat, or even the abnormal level of the ‘normal’ atrocities committed by the troops of both sides to the conflict. During the course of Operation Barbarossa in 1941, the Germans killed hundreds of thousands of Soviet soldiers in combat.