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A study of history, Volume 4, Breakdowns of Civilizations by Arnold Joseph Toynbee, Edward DeLos Myers

By Arnold Joseph Toynbee, Edward DeLos Myers

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V, p. 5 5, with footnote 4, andV. C(i)(c)3,vol. v,pp. 211-2, below. pp 338 and 340, above. (n) (b), vol. in, pp. 338-9, above. * At the time of the Peloponnesian War, when Ionia was at her political nadir, we have explicit testimony that a number of the continental and insular Asiatic Greek cities were unfortified. C. The evidence is as follows: for the Ionian cities in general, Thucydides III. 33; for Chios, Erythrae, and Clazomenae, VIII. 14; for Clazomenae again, VIII. 31 for Chios previously, IV.

In subjective terms, societies are the intelligible fields of historical study. 2 In objective terms, they are the common ground between the respective fields of activity of a number of individual human being3 3 who are themselves living organisms but who cannot conjure up a giant in their own image out of the inter- own shadows and then breathe into this unsubbody the breath of their own life. The individual energies section of their stantial of all the human beings who constitute the so-called 'members' of a society are the vital forces whose operation works out the can history of that society, including its Time-span.

Book V, chap. 13, and Book VII, chap. i). The emperor-philosopher relentlessly pursues this theory of the objective nature of the Universe into its subjective consequences for the Soul: 'He who has once seen the Present has for ever seen all things all that will be in an infinite Future, as well as all that has been in a Past that is without beginning. All things are homogeneous and uniform' (Marcus. Meditations, Book VI, chap. 37). The logical conclusion is that a man of forty, if he is not positively deficient in intelligence, must know as much about human life as if he had been studying it for 10,000 years (Book VII, chap.

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