By Weimin Han

This quantity offers a posteriori mistakes research for mathematical idealizations in modeling boundary price difficulties, specifically these coming up in mechanical functions, and for numerical approximations of diverse nonlinear variational difficulties. the writer avoids giving the implications within the such a lot normal, summary shape in order that it really is more uncomplicated for the reader to appreciate extra in actual fact the basic principles concerned. Many examples are integrated to teach the usefulness of the derived blunders estimates.

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**Extra resources for A Posteriori Error Analysis via Duality Theory**

**Example text**

46) is equivalent to minimizing the energy functional 1 E(v) = -a(v,v) - t(v) j(v) 2 over the space V. 26. ) implies + f o r a n y u , ~E V andandt E [ O , l ] . Variational inequality formulations of many other contact problems can be found in [94, 811. 8. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD, ERROR ESTIMATES Weak formulations of boundary value problems are the basis for development of Galerkin methods, a general framework for approximation of variational problems, that include the finite element method as a special case.

6. Let a = ~ / w For . each positive integer k , define r k f fsin k a 8 r k f f( l n r sin k a 8 + if k a # integer, 8 cos k a 8 ) if k a = integer. + Then i f f E WmlP(f2) and m 2 - 2 / p is not an integer, we have the following smoothness property for the solution u (cf, citeGr): for some constants c k , which are certain linear functionals of f . Hence, no matter how smooth the function f is, the smoothness of the solution u is determined by the smoothness of the singular term ul as long as cl = cl ( f ) # 0.

Let V be a Hilbert space. We introduce the following definition. 15 Let a : V x V -+ R . ) is a bilinear form on V i f it is linear with respect to each argument. We say the bilinear form a ( . ) is V-elliptic ifthere is a constant m > 0 such that and a ( . ) is symmetric if a ( u ,v ) = a ( v ,u ) V u , v E V. For a ( . 17). THEOREM 1-16 (Lax-Milgram Lemma) Let V be a Hilbert space. Assume a ( . , -) is a bounded, V-elliptic bilinear form on V, t! E V*. 17). 17). With the Lax-Milgram lemma, it is easy to show that these problems all admit a unique solution.