By Gabriel Reynolds
In 385 AH/AD 995 the Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar, renowned for his Mu'tazili theological writings, wrote the affirmation of the Proofs of Prophecy, a piece that features a artistic polemic opposed to Christianity. 'Abd al-Jabbar reinterprets the Bible, Church historical past (especially the lives of Paul and Constantine) and Christian perform to argue that Christians replaced the Islamic faith of Jesus. the current paintings starts with an exam of the debatable thought that this polemic used to be borrowed from an unknown Judaeo-Christian team. the writer argues that 'Abd al-Jabbar's polemic is healthier understood as a reaction to his specific milieu and the on-going inter-religious debates of the medieval Islamic international. by means of interpreting the lifestyles and regarded 'Abd al-Jabbar, besides the Islamic, Christian and Jewish antecedants to his polemic, the writer uncovers the intimate dating among sectarian controversy and the advance of an Islamic doctrine on Christianity.
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Additional info for A Muslim Theologian in the Sectarian Milieu: Abd al-Jabbar and the Critique of Christian Origins (Islamic History and Civilization)
De Boer and the German A. H. 26 Nor is this idea the invention of western scholarship. In his The Guide of the Perplexed, the Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides (d. 27 24 In this regard, note that Jewish scholars of the post-Mishnaic period (thirdﬁfth centuries AD) were called, in Aramaic, amorà"ìm. ” See R. Goldenberg, “Talmud,” Encyclopedia of Religion, 14:257. J. de Boer, Geschichte der Philosophie im Islam (Stuttgart: Frommanns, 1901), 41; A. von Kremer, Geschichte der herrschenden Ideen als Islams: der Gottesbegriﬀ, die Prophetie und Staatsidee (Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1868), 8.
Haarbrücker, Abu-l-Fath Muhammad asch-Schahrastânî’s Religionspartheien und Philosophen-Schulen [Halle: Schwetschke, 1850–1]). Yet accounts such as these, which seem all too complete and independent, are to be taken cum grano salis. Van Ess comments on this narrative, “Man darf sich jedoch durch die Kohärenz dieses Bildes nicht täuschen lassen” (TG, 2:256). In fact, even medieval Islamic sources diﬀer regarding the historical rise of the Mu'tazila. Some have not Wàßil but 'Amr b. ‘Ubayd withdrawing from Óasan.
22 See van Ess, TG, 2:339. Notice the case of Îiràr b. 'Amr (d. 200/815), who is said to have denied the eternity of the Qur"àn and the divine attributes but also to have believed in God’s qadar. Thus he is referred to in the sources variously as a Mu'tazilì and a forerunner of Ash'arì. See Watt, Formative Period, 189. 23 Van Ess, “The Beginning of Islamic Theology,” The Cultural Context of Medieval Learning (Boston: D. Reidel, 1975), 105. Van Ess adds that beyond using a certain type of argument, a mutakallim should hold two fundamental doctrines: 1.