By András I. Stipsicz, Robert E. Gompf

The previous twenty years have introduced explosive development in 4-manifold thought. Many books are presently showing that process the subject from viewpoints comparable to gauge thought or algebraic geometry. This quantity, despite the fact that, bargains an exposition from a topological standpoint. It bridges the space to different disciplines and offers classical yet vital topological suggestions that experience no longer formerly seemed within the literature. half I of the textual content provides the fundamentals of the speculation on the second-year graduate point and provides an summary of present examine. half II is dedicated to an exposition of Kirby calculus, or handlebody thought on 4-manifolds. it really is either basic and accomplished. half III bargains extensive a huge diversity of themes from present 4-manifold examine. issues comprise branched coverings and the geography of complicated surfaces, elliptic and Lefschetz fibrations, $h$-cobordisms, symplectic 4-manifolds, and Stein surfaces. purposes are featured, and there are over three hundred illustrations and various workouts with recommendations within the booklet.

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**Sample text**

23) and the average energy in the form ǫ¯ = ǫN. 2. Fermionic quantum system at finite temperature For a fermionic quantum system there are only two states |0 > and |1 > with energy ǫ. 25) ˆ = α+ α. 30) The average energy of the system in the state with energy ǫ is ǫ¯ = ǫN. The next section describes an alternative approach, the method of functional integrals for studying the behavior of statistical systems. 32 Chapter 2 PATH INTEGRALS IN STATISTICAL PHYSICS Functional integration, introduced several decades ago [Feynman & Hibbs 1965], is one of the most powerful methods of modern theoretical physics.

However, the methods of path integral may be applied in the same way to finite temperature Fermi systems. This section develops these methods. 56) metric gµν = diag(−, +, +, +)and, by notation, ψ¯ = ψ + γ 0 is hermition conjugate. 59) Thus consider ψ and ψ + to be independent entities in the Hamiltonian formulation. 21). 64) ∂ψ − H(ψ + (x, t), ψ(x, t)) ∂t For the time variable τ , get Zβ = N exp ′ β dτ 0 d3 xψ + µ − idψ + dψ ∂ + iγ 0 γ · ∇ − mγ 0 ψ ∂τ The quantization of a Fermi system can be obtained as a result of integration over the space of anticommuting functions ψ(x, τ ) (x ∈ V, τ ∈ [0, β]), which are the elements of an infinite Grassman algebra.

The extension of functional integral techniques to background curved space-time allows one to take into account the gravitational field by considering the statistical and thermodynamical properties of the systems. The aim of this chapter is to introduce the finite temperature functional integral approach to statistical mechanics and local thermodynamics in curved space-time. 1 Partition function in path integral formalism This paragraph discusses the scalar field which is described by the Schrodinger field operator ϕ(x) ˆ where x is the spatial coordinate.